Rabies in North Carolina

Dr. Bridget Andersen

The Rabies virus is an uncommon, yet deadly disease that can be spread from animal to animal or from animal to human.  With the emphasis placed on Rabies vaccination within the pet community in the last 50 years, the United States has been highly effective in decreasing the number of Rabies cases in domestic animals per year.   Before 1960, the majority of cases reported were in domestic animals.   Now more than 90% of cases occur in wildlife –specifically bats, raccoons, foxes, and skunks.  Most of us are not brave enough to tangle with the raccoon in the trash can, however, the majority of our dogs and cats are not so fearful.   On emergency shifts, I see several cases per year of indoor dogs with bite wounds suffered from defending the home from raccoons and cats with bite wounds sustained while trying to protect their food dish.  And while the bites and scratches are not always life threatening themselves, these cases end up being very sad nonetheless when those pets are overdue on their Rabies vaccinations.

In North Carolina we take Rabies very seriously.  The virus is still nearly 100% fatal once infected.  If your domestic pet presents to the hospital for treatment from a bite wound from wildlife, and is not up to date on its vaccines, it will very likely need to be placed in quarantine for 10 days to 6 months depending on the situation.  Not only is this devastating for the pet because quarantine means in a cage, in a facility equipt for quarantine, with no human contact, but it can be devastating financially as well.  Sometimes Animal Control is able to provide quarantine, but if they are full then it must be performed at an approved veterinary hospital and can cost over $4000.  The majority of people that I have helped in these situations cannot afford or bear the thought of quarentine and have elected to euthanize.  I hate these cases the most because the likelihood of your pet contracting rabies is very low, but the consequences of your pet developing Rabies, and then infecting you, is devastating and unacceptable.   For this reason, even the smallest bite to the most loved pet who is just days overdue is treated in this very serious manner.   There is no reason to put you pet at risk for contracting this disease or being placed in quarantine.  The vaccination is inexpensive, has a low risk of side effects, and is almost 100% effective in preventing infections.

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“Lumps & Bumps & Masses, Oh My!” by Dr. Kimberly Ackerman

You’re sitting on the couch, watching TV and petting your beloved furry friend when you feel it… a lump! Should you have it checked out or just ignore it? I’m here to tell you that you should always have any lump, bump, growth, or mass checked by your veterinarian.  It’s important to document the characteristics of the growth including size, shape, color, and location so that any changes in these characteristics can be monitored.  To help diagnose a mass, the first step is often an FNA or “fine needle aspirate”. This procedure involves taking a sterile needle, inserting it into the mass to collect some cells, and then placing these cells on a slide. We stain the slide and then look at the cells under the microscope to try and figure out the origin of the mass.  Some masses don’t exfoliate well, meaning it is hard to collect cells on FNA and therefore we are unable to diagnose the mass. In these cases, we may recommend biopsying a piece of the mass or completely removing the mass via surgery and then sending it to a pathologist for biopsy.  

 

It’s important to classify the mass, either via FNA or biopsy, so we know how to proceed with treatment.  For example, skin tags, sebaceous cysts, and lipomas are all examples of benign lesions that do not necessarily require any intervention. Surgical removal of benign lesions is cosmetic, or recommended if the lump bothers the pet (i.e. it is bleeding, becomes infected, is located on the body in an area that affects mobility, or causes pain and discomfort).  If a mass is malignant this means it is cancerous and likely to spread to other parts of the body. Some examples of malignant neoplasms include mast cell tumors, melanoma, and squamous cell carcinoma to name a few. The treatment depends on the biologic behavior of the tumor. Some cancers are curative with complete surgical removal of the mass while others require radiation and chemotherapy treatment.  

 

In summary, we cannot diagnose a lump or bump simply by looking at it with our eyes. There are a number of potential diagnoses for a lump and having it evaluated is very important in establishing a treatment plan. Not all masses are the same so the next time you’re relaxing with your pet on the couch and feel a lump, tell your veterinarian!

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