Canine influenza, or dog flu, is a highly contagious airborne condition that can affect all dogs regardless of breed, age, or health. Nearly all cases of canine flu result from indoor group, boarding facility, play centers, groomers, and dog parks.
However, with increased owner awareness, stricter policies at shared spaces, and the widespread availability of the canine influenza vaccine, dogs have a greater chance of avoiding this virus.Continue…
Dr. Robert Brady
What Is Canine Hip Dysplasia?
Canine hip dysplasia is a painful disease that affects millions of dogs each year. It is an inherited developmental disorder of the hip joint and can lead to debilitating arthritis. Its progression can be influenced by environmental factors, such as weight gain, nutrition, and exercise. Certain breeds, especially larger ones, are particularly prone to hip dysplasia, but the disease can affect dogs of any size, breed or age.
Just as in humans, the hip joint in dogs is a “ball and socket” joint. In healthy dogs, the ball and socket fit together tightly. With dogs suffering from hip dysplasia, the joint is “loose,” and the ball part of the joint may even rotate partially out of its socket. In time, this looseness causes wear and tear on the joint cartilage, leading to osteoarthritis.
Canine hip dysplasia is an inherited problem, meaning that certain breeds or families of dogs may be prone to it. For this reason, when purchasing or adopting a puppy, especially if it is a breed that is known to be predisposed to hip dysplasia, make sure the parents (if known) do not have hip problems and that the puppy has been screened by a veterinarian for any early signs of the disease.
- Canine hip dysplasia is a painful disease that can lead to debilitating arthritis.
- It affects the “ball and socket” joint of the hip.
- Canine hip dysplasia is a hereditary problem that can be influenced by lifestyle factors. Certain breeds are predisposed.
- Hip dysplasia can sometimes be treated medically, but surgery is often required.
- Early recognition and a program of weight management and regular exercise can sometimes slow disease progression.
What Are the Signs?
The disease is painful and progressive and can affect one or both hips. It can affect very young dogs (many are less than 1 year old), but dogs of any age can be affected.
- Decreased activity level
- Difficulty rising
- Stiffness or lameness upon waking or after exercise
- Running with a “bunny hopping” gait
- Difficulty climbing stairs or getting in and out of vehicles
- Discomfort in a sitting or lying position
- Muscle atrophy (wasting) in the hip area
Breeds that are most commonly affected include:
- German shepherd
- Labrador retriever
- Great Dane
- Golden retriever
- Saint Bernard
A diagnosis of hip dysplasia is made based on clinical signs, physical examination, and radiographs (x-rays). Two systems have also been developed for screening and/or diagnosing dogs with hip dysplasia. Responsible breeders use at least one of these systems before including a dog in their breeding program:
- The OFA System: The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) oversees a multibreed hip registry database. The OFA’s system, which has been in use since 1966, has developed a standardized evaluation system and radiographic test to help breeders and owners assess the hip health of prospective parents as well as any puppies they may produce. Dogs must be 24 months of age or older to be included in the registry.
- The PennHIP System: The PennHIP system, which was developed at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, has been in use since 1993. It uses a series of three radiographs to assess a “distraction index”—or DI—for each dog. The greater the DI, the higher the chances that the dog has or will develop hip dysplasia. The PennHIP analysis can be performed in puppies as young as 4 months of age.
Canine hip dysplasia is a serious, progressive disease, and better outcomes are typically achieved when it is diagnosed as early as possible and management and treatment measures are initiated promptly. Risk factors for the development of hip dysplasia in dogs that are genetically prone to the disease include obesity and overfeeding large-breed puppies during growth phases.
A proper diet that helps maintain an ideal weight, combined with a regular exercise plan, can help slow the progression of hip dysplasia for some dogs. In less severe cases, medical management can also include providing pain medications as needed under veterinary supervision as well as administering oral or injectable joint supplements or medications. “Comfort care,” such as keeping dogs out of cold weather and performing massage, therapeutic laser or physical therapy, can also help keep affected dogs comfortable and slow progression of the disease for as long as possible.
In severe cases, surgery may be indicated. Surgical options include total hip replacement surgery, reconstructing the hip joint, or removing the abnormal part of the joint and allowing the surrounding structures to form a “false joint” over time.
NOTE: Canine hip dysplasia can be an expensive disease to manage and/or treat. Before purchasing or adopting a puppy, be sure to find out the hip “status” of the parents. If that is not possible, be sure to have your puppy’s hips evaluated by your veterinarian as soon as possible.
Dr. Abigial Brady
Heartworm disease is very common in North Carolina and has been diagnosed in all 48 states within the continental US. Heartworm disease is a fatal disease in dogs and cats. Heartworms are spaghetti-like worms that live inside the heart of dogs, cats, and wild mammals such as wolves, coyotes and foxes. When the worms are living in the heart they can cause heart failure, lung disease and severe disease in other organs of the body.
How do our pets get heartworms?
Heartworms are spread through mosquito bites. Wild animals are natural carriers of heartworms. When a mosquito bites an infected animal, they ingest the heartworm larvae (immature heartworms). The larvae mature into the infective stage while inside the mosquito. When the mosquito moves on and bites the next dog or cat they come across, they transfer the larvae into the pet. The immature mosquitos then migrate from the bite into the bloodstream and then to the heart, where they will continue to mature and cause signs of disease. From the time of the bite to the time that the worms are matured and able to be detected by a blood test is an average of 6 months.
Dogs are a natural host of the heartworm, meaning that the worms can mature and reproduce in the heart. Because of this, the worms can continue to reproduce and there can be up to several hundred worms living in one dog if they are left untreated. The heartworms can live in the dog for 5-7 years.
Cats are not natural hosts of heartworms. This means that they rarely develop to adulthood and typically do not reproduce. Normally when a cat is infected with heartworms, there are only 1-3 worms present. Even though they rarely have adult worms and in comparison to dogs, there are only a few present, heartworm disease can still be severe and even fatal in cats. The heartworms can live in the cat for 2-3 years.
What are the signs of heartworm disease?
In heartworm positive dogs, the most common signs seen are associated with heart disease. In early stages of disease there are usually no clinical signs that you will be able to detect. The most common signs that are seen by owners include a persistent cough, reluctance to exercise, becoming tired/worn out more quickly, weight loss and loss of appetite. In late stages of disease or severe disease you may see a distended abdomen, collapse, labored breathing or pale gums.
Cats with heartworm disease may have no signs or very severe signs. They commonly have respiratory signs including coughing or asthma-like breathing but they may also have vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, difficulty walking, fainting or a distended abdomen. Unfortunately in cats the first sign may be sudden collapse or even sudden death.
How do I get my pet tested for heartworms?
All dogs should be tested for heartworms every 12 months (starting at 1 year of age). This can be done with the annual blood work that your veterinarian runs. There are in-hospital, rapid tests that can be run, or your veterinarian may elect to send your pet’s blood to an outside lab to run a heartworm test.
Because cats do not usually have adult heartworms, they can be more difficult to detect. The preferred method to test cats is to took for both the antigen and antibody (the presence of worms and the exposure to them) but your veterinarian may also recommend x-rays or an ultrasound to help detect the worms if your cat is showing clinical signs of heartworm disease.
How can I prevent heartworm disease?
There are many veterinary approved heartworm preventions on the market. There are some preventatives that you may be able to find over the counter but these medications are not regulated so please consult your veterinarian before starting your pet on one. Heartworm prevention is available in many forms. There are several brands of oral medications, both pills and chewable “treats”. You can also purchase topical liquids, which can be convenient for picky eaters or pets with food allergies. Most preventatives should be given monthly, 12 months a year. Many of the available preventatives also protect pets from intestinal parasites and fleas, ask your veterinarian for more information on this!
How is heartworm disease treated?
In dogs there are a few different protocols that are available to treat heartworms. Before treatment is performed, many diagnostic tests such as blood work and x-rays will be done to make sure your dog is getting the best care. Your veterinarian will come up with the best treatment protocol for your dog, most of which include several visits to the veterinary hospital, strict exercise restriction and close monitoring. Treatment can be very difficult on a dog’s body and there are side effects that can occur, but without treatment heartworm disease can be fatal. The treatment protocols can be several hundred to a couple thousand dollars. Monthly prevention is very important. The cost of prevention is much less than the cost of treatment and is much easier on the dog’s body.
Unfortunately for cats there are no approved drug protocols. Strict monitoring and close veterinary care is crucial to maintaining your cats health if they are diagnosed with heartworm disease.
Please talk to your veterinarian about any questions you still have about heartworms and how to protect your pets. The American Heartworm Society also has an abundance of information on their website.
by Dr. Robert Brady
What Is It?
Arthritis is a joint problem that can reduce mobility and cause pain. Often seen in older dogs, arthritis can be caused by injury, infection, the body’s own immune system, or developmental problems. The most common form of arthritis is called osteoarthritis (osteo = bone; arthr = joint; itis = inflammation) or degenerative joint disease. Normally, joints form smooth connections between bones. Osteoarthritis involves thinning of joint cartilage (a protective cushioning between bones), buildup of fluid within the joint, and the formation of bony growths within the joint. Over time, this can lead to reduced joint mobility as well as pain.
- Osteoarthritis affects one of every five dogs.
- Thinning of joint cartilage can lead to a vicious cycle of joint deterioration, reduced mobility, and pain.
- Supportive care is important, and treatment may include pain medication, NSAIDs, corticosteroids,supplements, massage, therapeutic laser, warm compresses, and/or surgery.
- Regular, moderate exercise may help delay canine arthritis.
Signs and Diagnosis
- Stiffness after exercise or rest
- Wasting away of muscle
- Limited movement
- Joint swelling
- Trouble getting up, laying down, walking, climbing stairs, or jumping
- A grating sound in a joint
Recognizing arthritis in dogs can be difficult because the condition progresses slowly and dogs don’t complain about their aching joints. Also, some owners assume that signs of arthritis are “normal” in older animals.
Bringing your dog in for an annual checkup can help your veterinarian identify clinical signs early. Radiography (x-rays) can reveal bony growths and joint abnormalities.
- Getting or keeping your dog slim can help by decreasing the load on his or her joints.
- Feeding your dog the right amount of high-quality food should help with weight control.
- Carefully monitored exercise on soft surfaces can help affected dogs..
- Because arthritis is aggravated by cold and damp, keep your dog warm and dry. Padded dog beds can help.
- Warm compresses can soothe affected joints.
- Massage and passive range of motion can increase your dog’s flexibility, circulation, and sense of well-being. Professional animal massage therapists are available.
- Pain medication, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (commonly called NSAIDs), may help relieve signs, but you should never give your dog a drug without your veterinarian’s recommendation. Ibuprofen (Advil), Aspirin, and acetaminophen (Tylenol) can be toxic to dogs and cats so never give these medications to your pets.
- Corticosteroids can be used to suppress inflammation, but they are usually used for short periods.
- Glucosamine and chondroitin have been used to help manage arthritis in dogs and other animals.
- Acupuncture isn’t just for people. It’s painless and has shown some success in animals.
- Therapeutic Laser therapy has also been proven to reduce inflammation and pain associated with arthritis in dogs.
- Surgery may be a good choice in advanced cases of canine arthritis including total hip replacements.
- A low-stress environment, plenty of affection, and supportive care can help improve your dog’s quality of life.
Regular, moderate exercise and a high-quality diet can help delay aging, keeping your pet thin, and early intervention when a problem is suspected all help delay the progression of arthritis.
Aids for Arthritic Dogs
- Slip-free flooring/ grip enhancement for your pets feet
- Soft bedding
- Ramps (instead of steps)
- A warm, dry environment
- Assisted grooming
- Regular veterinary visits
- Pain medications when warranted
- Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Laser treatments